The first part of the article is about underground construction history in India.
Weather conditions and social traditions formed special water supplying system making its architectural form unique. The cultural and religious features turned the stepwells into the world heritage architectural sights.
The corridors well known as Parisian catacombs are full of mystery and romance in one’s imagination, but in reality there are 300 km of more than substantial underground tunnels under the 5, 6, 7, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 and 20 districts. Nevertheless people rarely think about its origin, taking the catacombs as some kind of a concept.
Lately the most developed countries have been paying attention to the questions of the nature preservation and protection of endangered species at their territories.
Every politic leader tries to include Global Climate Changes questions and wildlife conservations problems solutions into their pre-election debate, public persons do their best to attract media and general public attention to the problem and persuade them to be gentle to their neighbors on the planet.
Many reasons caused the rapid development of the underground part of Montreal. One of them was renting the land that remained after the construction of underground structures. The city knowingly reserves the larger parts of the land then it is required for construction of above ground entrance to the station to save the city from unsafe blocks.
In Norway you will in 2013 find 258 underground hydropower plants. Thus, telling a story of high activity and engineering expertise in this particular field.Power houses, in some cases, with spans measuring 20 metres and more. However, involved engineers and architects transformed them into spectacular rooms in colour, light and architectural design.
Montreal is ranked high at world lists of the most comfortable for living urban places. UNESCO named the cultural and industrial capital of Canada the UNESCO City of Design in 2006. It is one of the oldest cities of the country, built-up by presentable buildings and monuments of architecture, which are not obstacles for the city’s underground infrastructure development.
The architects of the Roman Empire left us not only masterpieces above the ground, that still inspire modern specialists and attract millions of tourists from all over the world, but also unique underground structures.
The Basilica Cistern is located not far from the famous Cathedral - Hagia Sophia, in the center of Istanbul.
The Basilica Cistern was constructed in 532 AD under byzantine Emperor Justinian I. According to different sources, the cistern was a part of a vast water system that supplied Constantinople with water from springs of Thrace, 250 km far from the capital of the Byzantine Empire. The system consisted of numerous tunnels, aqueducts, other cisterns.
The construction of water-supply system for Constantinople was started under Emperor Hadrian and was substantially extended under Constantine I.
It is one of the brightest examples of creation of the leisure pedestrian area with a help of underground construction and relocation underground of infrastructure in regard of solving the problem of excessive motorization.
Underground master plan of Helsinki is well-known project of complex use of underground space. This remarkable master plan, being first of the kind in the world, demonstrates successful example of favourable geological conditions usage. Being restricted by the seashore in its growth Helsinki wisely relocated underground parking, serving tunnels, bus central station, coal storages in order to make Helsinki center more comfortable for its citizens.
15.07.2017 - 19.07.2017
International Congress and Exhibition GeoMEast 2017
17.09.2017 - 22.09.2017
19th International Conference - ICSMGE